Electric Vehicle Charging Methods







On-board V2G

2-way power-flow required

Grid tie inverter

Current comms insufficient

Lower power transfer rates

  3 – 7 kW Single phase AC

< 43 kW Three phase AC




Off-board V2G

Multiple users of asset

CAN communication through CharDeMo standard

Higher power transfer (20 – 50 kW)

V2H Nissan (6kW)




The study is based on three technical components.  Firstly the Virtual Power Plant (VPP) at an aggregate level combining energy generation from multiple sources, leading to "positive energy" buildings, i.e. having the ability to satisfy their own energy needs (thermal and/or electric) and contribute excess power to the community. Secondly electric vehicles (EVs) with a vehicle to grid capability and smart metering to allow the ebb and flow of energy between the grid, the virtual power plant and the EVs. The third element involves identifying business models for implementation and operation of the system.  The positive energy building concept becomes technically  and economically feasible if extending its boundary to groups of buildings, campuses or communities (aggregators). The feasibility study aims to indetify the issues that need to be addressed in these three areas and develop an approach to addressing the issues and the appropriate business model or models for developing a solution.